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      中國文獻查重檢測系統

      多語種 圖文 指定高校抄襲檢測系統

      知網查重推薦:淺談建筑給排水節能節水技術的應用

      2019-06-13  分類:常規論文查重  閱讀(45)

      以下內容由知網查重網站收集整理!知網查重提醒大家,畢業論文是考驗大家大學四年的成果,應當認真應對!切勿剽竊他人的學術成果。專科本科重復率30以上將不能順利畢業延遲答辯!碩士及以上學歷重復率不能超出百分之20,個別學校需要百分之十以下!

      摘 要:結合當前水資源缺乏的嚴峻形勢,簡述了當前建筑給排水設計中存在的問題并依此提出建筑給排水節能節水技術的重要性和應用意義,并且從多方面論述了常用的節能節水技術,對實現能源和水資源的合理利用提出了建議。

      關鍵詞:

      能源供應緊張、缺水是一個全球性的大問題。我國是一個水資源短缺的國家,又是一個人口眾多的國家,水資源供需矛盾尤其突出。據資料顯示全國人均水資源占有量只相當于世界人均水平的1/4,被列為全球13個貧水國之一。目前我國有330多個城市不同程度地貧水,其中嚴重缺水的竟達108個。

      能源和水資源都是發展國民經濟的重要物質基礎,而當前中國日益嚴重的能源緊缺、水環境污染、能源及水資源利用率低等問題,不僅困擾國計民生,而且已成為制約社會經濟可持續發展的重要因素。節能節水是我國經濟和社會發展的一項長遠戰略方針,也是當前一項極為緊迫的任務。

      1.建筑給排水節能節水的重要性

      近年來,隨著城市建筑業突飛猛進的發展,城市總用水量中,建筑用水占據的比例逐年增加,使得建筑給水排水工程的節水、節能問題不容忽視。建筑給排水在建筑能耗中所含的內容主要有:人民生活及從事工藝、生產、游樂、環境衛生、綠化、水景等活動的給水、排水、消防、熱水、回用水等需要的能耗。據資料介紹:上述各項能耗中僅生活熱水一項就占整個建筑能耗的10%~30%。因此建筑給排水中的節水、節能作為國家節水、節能的一個重要領域,在現實國家可持續發的戰略目標中顯得極為重要。

      目前,建筑給排水系統中資源的浪費主要可以歸納為以下幾方面:1)超壓出流造成浪費;2)熱水供應系統循環方式選擇不當造成浪費;3)衛生器具和配水器具造成浪費;4)消防加壓貯水系統選擇不合理造成浪費;5)中水綜合利用率不高造成浪費;6)管道、閥門及其他給水配件等泄漏造成浪費。為改變這一現狀,在建筑給排水設計中應采取多種措施來達到節水節能的目的。

      2.建筑給排水節能節水技術簡介

      2.1利用太陽能作住宅熱水加熱

      太陽能作為清潔能源,是節能的重要途徑。我國屬于太陽能資源豐富的國家之一,非常適合推廣太陽能熱水器。太陽能作為清潔能源是節能的重要途徑,利用太陽能制備生活熱水,既節約能源又保護環境。

      2.2采用分區給水方式,合理利用市政管網余壓

      充分合理地利用市政給水管網的供水壓力,采用分區供水方式井,可節約加壓能源,減少二次加壓能耗。如市政管網壓力為0.3MPa,則六層及以下樓層可采用市政管網直接供水。六層以上采用無負壓變頻供水設備供水。這樣即不浪費市政管網余壓又不至于使低樓層管網壓力過高,造成能耗及水量浪費。

      2.3合理的設置消防系統

      高層建筑中消防貯水池盡可能地與游泳池、水景合用,做到一水多用、重復利用及循環使用。同時,高層建筑群或小區應盡可能共用消防水池和加壓水泵,這樣,既可避免消防加壓給各建筑設計帶來的諸多技術問題,又可以節省工程建設和設備投資,降低運轉費用,便于集中管理,同時可避免多座貯水池的大量消防貯水及定期換水而造成的浪費。

      2.4采用節水型衛生器具

      作為水的最終使用單元,衛生器具和配水器具的節水性能直接影響著建筑節水工作的成效。目前使用節水型衛生器具的主要辦法有:1)使用小容積水箱,減少馬桶沖洗水量。目前我國正在推廣使用6L水箱節水型大便器,若全部使用沖水量≤6L的馬桶,則住宅可節水14%,賓館、飯店可節水4%,辦公樓可節水27%;2)廚房、沐浴、盥洗的節水廚房的洗滌盆、沐浴水嘴和盥洗室的面盆龍頭若采用充氣水嘴,可節水且不減小水柱的直徑。瓷芯節水龍頭節水效果也比較明顯;3)在公建衛生間中積極推廣使用紅外感應控制式水龍頭和延時自閉式水龍頭。

      2.5加強水表的管理

      1)增加小區進戶總水表的設置;2)提高水表計量的準確度;3)發展IC卡水表和遠傳水表。

      2.6防止二次污染造成的水量浪量

      二次污染事故的發生,使得建筑給水系統不能正常工作,造成用戶用水困難。同時,受到污染的水將會被排放,對供水系統的清洗處理,也需耗費大量的自來水,這些都造成了水的嚴重浪費。因而防止建筑給水系統二次污染,對節約用水有著十分重要的意義。

      2.7完善熱水循環系統

      在實際生活中,大多數集中熱水供應系統存在嚴重的浪費現象,主要體現在開啟熱水裝置后,不能及時獲得滿足使用溫度的熱水,而是要放掉部分冷水之后才能正常使用。這種水流的浪費現象是設計、施工、管理等多方面原因造成的。因此在熱水系統設計中循環管道應盡量保證同程布置,冷熱水分區應一致,當不能滿足時,應采取保證系統冷、熱水壓力平衡的措施。

      2.8積極發展中水系統

      中水指的是人們日常生活中各種排水經過處理后,達到規定的水質標準,可在生活、市政、環境等范圍內雜用的非飲用水。建筑排水如果收集起來經過凈化處理成為中水,用作建筑雜用水和城市雜用水,如沖廁所、道路清掃、城市綠化、車輛沖洗、建筑施工、消防等雜用,從而替代出等量的自來水,這樣相當于增加了城市的供水量。它是實現污水資源化、節約水資源的有力措施,是今后節約用水發展的必然方向。

      另外,積蓄來自屋頂或其它區域的降水作為中水水源加以利用,對于實現水的可持續利用和保護環境也具有重要意義。目前,世界上許多國家都展開了對雨水利用的研究,以節約水資源,減輕當地的用水和污水處理負擔。

      3.結語

      實踐證明,建筑給排水設計是建筑設計中必不可少的一部分,采用節水節能設備和合理的給排水設計對于節水節能作用巨大。因此,在建筑給排水工程設計過程中,不僅要注重功能、外型等基本設計要求,還應重視節能節水技術在給排水設計中的應用,從而實現能源和水資源的合理利用。給排水設計人員應該認識到節能、節水的重要性,在設計過程中,把節能、節水放到重要位置,為節約能源、資源盡自己的一份力量。

      參考文獻

      [1] GB50015-2005. 建筑給水排水設計規范[S].

      [2] 溫曉. 建筑給排水節水節能新技術[J]. 能源與環境,2009(1).

      (作者單位:佛山市順德區碧桂園物業發展有限公司 廣東佛山 )

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